1.The elements of a mission statement including:






  ③Policies and standards of behavior


  ④Values and culture


  2.A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitivesuccess.


  3.Profitability ratios


  ①Return on capital employed(ROCE)


  =profit before interest and tax/(shareholders’funds+long-term liabilities)×100%


  ②Return on equity(ROE)=profit after tax/shareholders’funds×100%


  ③Asset turnover=sales/capital employed×100%


  =sales/(shareholders’funds+long-term liabilities)×100%


  ④Profit margin=profit before interest and tax/sales×100%


  Profit margin×asset turnover=ROCE


  4.Debt and gearing ratios


  ①Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities/total equity×100%


  ②Interest cover=PBIT/Interest×100%


  5.Liquidity ratios


  ①Current ratio=current assets/current liabilities


  ②Quick ratio(acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory/current liabilities


  6.Working capital ratios


  ①Inventory days=average inventory*365/cost of sales


  ②Receivables days=average trade receivables*365/sales


  ③Payables days=average trade payables*365/cost of sales(or purchases)


  7.Non-financial performance measures


  Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance.


  ①Market share










  ⑥Social aspects


  36.The balanced scorecard:


  ①financial perspective②external perspective


  ③customer perspective④learning and innovation perspective